Mercury planet facts, all about planet mercury you should know

Mercury planet facts

Mercury planet is the first planet in our solar system and it is also the smallest planet in our solar system. In the evening, this planet shines like a star in the sky, but This planet shines slightly less than the planet Venus. In addition to Venus, Mercury was considered to be the star of morning and evening. here in this article, we will learn about the Mercury planet facts, all about planet mercury you should know

Discovery

Mercury was known by our ancestors for centuries, ancient people living on different continents and countries knew it through different names. In the modern era, Mercury planet was first seen in the 17th Century by Galileo Galilei by using his telescope. In 1631 Pierre Gassendi first saw the transit of this planet from his telescope. On 28 May 1737, John Bavis saw the first Occultation in history from the Royal Greenwich Observatory, which was the Mercury and Venus planet.

Structure of mercury

Mercury is one of the four rocky planets of our solar system. This planet is rocky, it is exactly like our earth.Its radius is 240039.7 kilometers which is smaller than some of the satellites of our solar system. It is believed that this planet is made up of 70% iron element and 30% silicate material.After the Earth’s density in our Solar System, the density of this planet is second largest. Geologists say that Mercury is the core of the planet in 55% of the planet’s total volume, whereas the Earth’s core is only 17% of the total volume of Earth. Its core is surrounded by about 500 to 700 kilometers thick Mantle, its mantle is made of silicate and 35-kilometer thick crust is above the mantle.

The surface of Mercury Planet

The surface of Mercury completely resembles the surface of our moon. there are Large Craters are on the surface, which indicates that the planet Mercury is geologically inactive for billions of years. The big craters are formed by the collision of asteroids and other celestial objects on its surface, it is believed that these incidents would happen when this planet was formed in earlier days. From the small, to several hundred kilometers wide impact crater are there on the surface of this planet. The largest impact crater on Mercury is Caloris Basin, whose diameter is 1550 kilometers. It is believed that this tremendous collision made this impact crater. This collision was so powerful that the lava was starting to emerge from that collision and that lava made a ring around 2 kilometers high around that crater.

The environment on the planet Mercury

When Mercury is near the Sun Then which part of this planet is towards the sun, the temperature goes up to 700 Kelvin on that side. When it is the most distant from the Sun, its temperature goes up to 550 Kelvin. The part of this planet where the sunlight does not reach, the temperature drops to 110 Kelvin, which is much less than the maximum temperature. In the deep crater of Mercury’s planet where the sun’s light does not reach, the terrain remains cold, the temperature remains there at 102 Kelvin. Mercury is very small in size and weight. Its gravitational force is also very low so It can not stop the atmosphere of its own. Yet there is a very thin atmosphere on this planet in which hydrogen, helium, oxygen, sodium, calcium, potassium and other elements are found.

Atmospheric pressure on Mercury is less than 0.5 NPA. Mercury has its own very small magnetic field. This information was given to us by Mariner 10 Spacecraft. The magnetic field of this planet is not very powerful, it is only 1.1% of the Earth’s magnetic field. On August 6, 2018, Messenger Spacecraft gave this information during the second Flyby of this planet that there are large holes in the magnetic field of Mercury’s planet where solar winds and dangerous radiations can directly reach the surface of Mercury.

Orbit and rotation

Mercury is rotating the sun from the Sun from 460 million kilometers to 700 million kilometers. This planet completes one revolution of the Sun in 87.97 days, which is equal to the half day of Mercury planet. Mercury planet rotates very slowly on its axis. That is why a day of Mercury is equal to 2 years.

Mercury’s Moon

Mercury has no natural satellite of its own.

Life on the planet Mercury

This planet is the second hottest planet in our solar system. The spacecraft sent on this planet has also melted with its horrible heat, so human life cannot be imagined here. Apart from the heat, there is no atmosphere to live here, people cannot survive with dangerous radiation. Life is not possible at the end.

Mission

First Mission on Mercury NASA sent Mariner 10 from 1974 to 1975. Mariner 10 mapped only 45% of planet Mercury. This spacecraft was at a distance of 327 kilometers from the surface of Mercury’s planet, at such a low distance.  Spacecraft detected the magnetic field of Mercury’s planet, which surprised the scientists because the planet Mercury does not rotate on its axis so fast It could make its own magnetic field.On 24 March 1975, this spacecraft was near the planet for the last time. after 8 days it stopped the mission Because Spacecraft’s fuel was exhausted. Second mission messenger for Mercury planet was sent, which was launched on August 3, 2004. It Completed the first Flyby of Mercury on 14 January 2008, the second Flyby 6 October 2008 and the third Flyby on September 29, 2009. Messenger also mapped the parts of Mercury which Mariner 10 did not do that. It gave answers to many questions, the main of which are as follows

1. Why is the density of Mercury’s planet so high?

2. How the atmosphere was formed on Mercury

3. How the magnetic field was formed on the planet Mercury.

Messenger Spacecraft also collided with Mercury on April 30, 2015.

The European Space Agency is working with Japan to prepare a mission on Mercury which is named Bepicolombo in which two probes will be sent which will orbit Mercury Planet. It is expected to launch in 2018 and it will reach Mercury by 2025. This mission will highlight the mysteries of Mercury, which till today we have a challenge.

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